Speculative Windows

Research into the architectural microcosms of presentation and representation. For Walter Benjamin, fashion illustrates best the multifarious views on modern life with its diversity and volatility. [1] It is a barometer of social actuality and, at the same time, an agent of ideology. On the one hand, fashion is the threat of the human spirit in capitalistic modernity by the ever same. [2] On the other hand, it is the emblem of social change, of constantly striving for novelty, and for separation from the given. For Walter Benjamin, fashion is incorporated by the passage with the full hypnotic force of shop window that is like a narcotic to the flâneur. In the Parisian arcades – the first streets covered with shop windows – the windows are so fabulous that they actually observe the outside world. For Benjamin, “Pedestrians in the arcades are so to speak inhabitants of a panorama. [...] They are observed from the windows but they themselves cannot see in.” [3]
The shop window is the space of visual speculation. It is the stage of visual ecstasy, fashion’s place of seduction. In the 19th century, the window ceased to be an architectural opening for light and ventilation and became its modern function of framing a view. In this sense, the shop window can be regarded as the window of fashion, which demonstrates inside itself, the ever-changing fashion.

As Benjamin illustrates, the era of glass architecture begins in department stores with their rows of display windows and grand light courts or light wells. For him, the collective, dream-like unconscious of the modern industrial age is to be found in the transparency of the glass that consistently exteriorizes the interior. Glass, with its main properties of transparency and protection, keeps the outside out and at the same time brings it in. Its transparency forces a two way model of visuality: framing a private view outward (the picture window) and framing a public view inward (the display window). The improved glass technology and the will to display commodities produce the shop window. Commodities, seductively shown behind the glass surface of the shop window, frame the gaze of passing flâneurs and increase their desire for purchase.

Richard Sennett has illustrated glass as a “material, which lets [us] see everything inaccessible to desire.” [4] One can look through but cannot touch, which means, desire, but not possess. Thus, the view trough the shop window reduces street life to merely viewing. [5] It allows vision but prohibits touch and sound, which intensify the desire of consumers and make commodities “look better than they really are.” [6]

Emile Zola also describes these new phenomena as ecstasy and intoxication. His novel ‘Au Bonheur des Dames’ is set in a world of the ‘grand magasin’. Zola models his fictional department store after Le Bon Marché, and he claimes that the main purpose of the ‘grand magasin’ is to please woman. The protagonist, Octave Mouret, the owner of the department store, has gathered a lot of interesting commodities  – like silks, dresses, lingerie, gloves, coats, umbrellas – for his female customers, with the aim to overwhelm their senses. Zola writes:
“Mouret’s unique passion was to conquer woman. He wished her to be queen in his house, and he had built this temple to get her completely at his mercy. His sole aim was to intoxicate her with gallant attentions, and traffic on her desires, work on her fever.” [7]

Mouret’ medium is the shop window, which becomes a dream world of material pleasure and of the phantasmagoria of commodities.

However, merchandisers, as well as artists leap at this obviously spectacular medium.

Whereas earlier, in the stores, the function of the shop window was to bring light to the interior of the shop, the shop window also should bring clients. Wolfgang Schivelbusch has described that, earlier, the storeowners had hung magnificent signboards – advertising their products on sale – outside of their shops, to differentiate their shops from others. [8] In the 18th century, since they have obstructed the traffic, signboards have to be removed. Werner Sombart suggests that “the disappearance of these signboards, one after the other, almost as symbols of a dying age, was one of those momentous steps out of the grey world of figures.” [9]
The exterior shop signs disappear from the streets, but then reappear gorgeously in the shop windows.
Merchants discover the shop window as a site of commodity display. Schivelbusch calls this “a new combination of aesthetics and business.” [10] Commodities in the shop windows are altered, in a way improved in their appearances. The shop window turns into a stage for visual infection, into a place for desires, and into places of socializing. The shops then become to be “popular meeting places for high society for people who were happy to spend an hour of the day there, chatting, looking at the newest goods available and buying a few things, rather like at fashionable art auctions today.” [11]

Towards the end of the 19th century, shop windows are well-established, as strategic facilities that confront the passersby with the changing values of fashion. Famous with the fable ‘The Wonderful Wizard of Oz’, L. Frank Baum [12] outlines the representation of commodities as a strategy in his treatise ‘The Art of Decorating Dry Goods Windows and Interiors.’ This treatise on window displays, published at the turn of the century, is in a way a fable, which covers the issues of advertisement and display. Baum describes different techniques for attracting the attention of passersby and turning them into hypnotized spectators:

“How can a window sell goods? By placing them before the public in such a manner that the observer has a desire for them and enters the store to make the purchase. Once in, the customer may see other things she wants, and no matter how much she purchases under these conditions the credit of the sale belongs to the window.” [13]

He advocates turning windows into tableaux, in which entire outfits would be shown in artistically pleasing settings or fully decorated rooms. Various techniques should help to attract the curiosity of observers: spectacular moving electrical displays of revolving stars and models of Ferris wheels, mechanical birds and butterflies, and lighted globes. He promotes a weird technique with the name ‘illusion window’, where a live female model wearing store outfits would pose. She would at intervals disappear and reappear with new clothes, like a magic trick. This window display is called ‘the vanishing lady’.

At the beginning of the 20th century, various attempts are made to catch the attention of the observer; they apparently seem to follow Baum’s strategic guide. Popular Science [14] magazine reports on such an experiment in a shop window as an innovative way of window dressing. A furniture store in New York turns the shop’s window into an ice-skating ring and uses a live model as a mannequin for the window skating performances.

Baum aims at making the windows “come alive.” “People will always stop to examine anything that moves,” he explains, “and will enjoy studying out the mechanics or wondering how the effect has been obtained.” [15]

With this magic, he wants to arise in the observer the desire to possess the goods.
It is no surprise that during 1899 Thorstein Veblen is writing his well-known work about the power of the conspicuous in ‘The Theory of the Leisure Class’. He illustrats fashion as a result of “conspicuous consumption”, the act of consuming to be eye-catching and public effective. “Conspicuous consumption” is used as a way to gain prestige and status by the consumers. When the desires of the consumers change, the forms of the commodities have to change either. Therein is grounded the importance of novelty for conspicuous acting.

Salvador Dali walks through the streets of New York ringing a bell to draw extra attention to himself, as a small game of conspicuousness that would not bring him any fame. But, finally, he is commissioned to design two display windows at ‘Bonwit Teller’, a fashionable New York department store on Fifth Avenue. One of the Displays symbolizes ‘Day’, and the other ‘Night’. For  ‘Day’, Dali places a frightful wax mannequin, which is stepping into an old-fashioned hairy bathtub lined with astrakhan and filled with water, from which three wax arms arise holding mirrors.  For ‘Night’, in the other window, he shows another frightful mannequin lying on a bed, whose canopy is made of a buffalo head that carries a bloody pigeon in its mouth; the feet of the bed are the feet of the buffalo. [16]

Of course, as Dali goes to ‘Bonwit teller’ to see the effect of his windows he is shocked that “everything, absolutely everything, had been changed,” [17] because shoppers have raised such a hue and cry at the shocking display. With anger Dali sees the changes, and asks the gentleman from the management to remove his name. After their uncooperative talk, he goes to overturn his hairy bathtub of the ‘Day’ window. It crashes through the plate glass of the display window, and he falls through the broken window. Time Magazine among others reports this happening: “‘Oomph’ went the tub as he jerked it from the moorings. ‘Crash’ went Bonwit Teller’s beautiful plate-glass window as the small struggling artist and his tub went through it and lit ‘bang’ on the sidewalk.” [18]

Some other print media, including Art Digest, suspects the apparent accident was a publicity stunt. [19] Dali is arrested because of this accident, which is a big spectacle that made all the New Yorkers and the newspapers talk of him.

Far from being incidental, high fashion is always central to Surrealism’s project, providing raw material, a model of craft-based production and theatrical modes of presentation, all of which prove a fertile ground for Surrealism’s obsessions: the fetish and the dream. Fashion is obviously at the heart of Surrealist interest, and becomes an important part of their visual language.
Following Louis Aragon, the co-founder of Surrealism, fashion is the element, which is common to all forms of modernity. [20] In one of his most well-known works “Le Paysan de Paris” from 1926, Aragon identifies the passage with the ‘Théâtre Moderne’. He sees the passage as the site of erotic spectacles, where commodities on shop windows are more actors than the prostitutes. The shop window becomes the stage, the space of performance, and the spectacle. And the passage becomes an ocean as walking sticks in a shop window turn into see animals. [21]

In his essay “Some Notes on Shop Windows” Friedrich Kiesler proposes that the shop window should be performing a play, starring Mr. Hat and Miss Glove. He refers to the shop window as a peepshow stage, describing the street as the auditorium (of the theatre) with constantly changing viewers. He concludes with a rhetorical question, asking if anybody has written a play for commodities yet. [22] The shop window is a central issue in several of Kiesler’s works, in which he wants to attract the attention of the observers and turn them into active viewers, to awaken their desire to purchase.  In 1930, he publishes an extensive work on shop windows titled ‘Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display’, focusing on the topics of contemporary art and architecture and their relation to consumer culture. He maintains the significance of the commercial market for art and architecture, since he sees the department store as an important conduit through which to communicate with the public. He even calls one of the chapters “Contemporary Art Reached the Masses Through the Store.” The department store is regarded as “the true introducer of modernism to the public at large. It reveals contemporary art to American commerce.” It should be “the interpreter for the populace of a new spirit in art.“ [23] It should be an active agent  – or sender – of the message of contemporary art and architecture. And it should function to bring the new of art to the public.

Kiesler’s innovative guide also provides some examples of effective shop windows or product designs including Bruno Taut (Glass House, Exposition of the Koelner Werkbund, 1914), Mies van der Rohe (Exterior of the German Pavilion at the Barcelona Exposition, 1929), Arundell Studios (Office Entrance), Otto Wagner, Frank Lloyd Wright, etc. He also discusses his own shop window design for the department store ‘Saks Fifth Avenue’ (1928-1929), in which he stages an almost surrealist scenery. This window shows just a fur coat and a pair of gloves thrown on a chair with a monochrome background. [24] Asymmetry should be used to create a ‘mobile and kinetic’ rhythm.

Under the heading “A Dream of a Kinetic Window” Kiesler depicts the department store of the future with interactive and kinetic shop windows, which could present the passersby the commodities they like, just by pushing a button. [25] His kinetic window would bring the commodities closer for inspection, reveal prices if wanted, revolve to change the view, focus light and reply the questions of the customers. He also thinks of some mechanical devices – so called ‘Sales Robots’ [26] –, which would present the products to the customers in form of a film, illustrating the qualities and advantages of the commodities.

Kiesler introduces a similar concept, ‘The Telemuseum’ that he has developed as he was commissioned by the “Société Anonyme” to develop a model apartment in 1926. He sketches the future interior:

“You will enjoy the prerogative of selecting pictures that are compatible with your mood or that meet the demands of any special occasion. Through the dials of your Teleset you will share in the ownership of the world’s greatest art treasures.” [27]

At the very beginning of his book full of utopian concepts of kinetic and interactive shop window systems, Kiesler notes that “the store window is a silent loud speaker and not a dead storage.” [28] The role of the shop window should be an active and communicative one:

“After the passerby has halted, the silent window has a duty: to talk, to demonstrate. To explain. In short: to sell.” [29]

When a shop window attracts the attention of passersby, it is not only business and innovation that make them purchase, but also their individually ever-changing and stimulating needs. The shop window should itself affect these changing needs of consumers.

Kiesler’s notions on the role of the shop window can be compared to Marcel Duchamp’s frequently cited note from À L’Infinitif (The White Box):

“The question of shop windows .·.

To undergo the interrogation of shop windows .·.

The exigency of the shop window .·.

The shop window proof of the existence of the outside world .·.

When one undergoes the examination of the outside world, one also pronounces one’s own sentence. In fact, one’s choice is ’round trip’. From the demands of the shop windows, from the inevitable response to shop windows, my choice is determined. No obstinacy, ad absurdum, of hiding the coition through a glass pane with one or many objects of the glass window. The penalty consists in cutting the pane and in feeling regret as soon as the possession is consummated. Q. E. D.” [30]
As for Kiesler, for Duchamp, the window represents an active and communicative instrument. While for Kiesler the shop window ‘talks’ and ‘explains’ Duchamp’s window ‘interrogates’ and ‘demands’. Duchamp recognizes the appeal of the shop windows in its reflective properties. For him purchasing the commodities results in “feeling regret.”

This note on shop window is often brought together with one of his major works ‘La mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires, meme’ also called ‘Large Glass’, on which he worked from 1915 to 1923. For this work he has been inspired from a shop window of the deluxe confectioner ‘Gamelin’ in Rouen on New Year’s Day in 1913. [31] He is impressed with a big ‘Broyeuse du Chocolat’– dating from the middle of the 18th century – in the shop window, which he introduces as the staring point of the ‘Large Glass’. [32]

With the chocolate grinder Duchamp, for the first time, rejects the Cubist fragmentation of forms and discovers “mechanical patterns, the crucial role of randomness and the seductive power of objects.” The chocolate grinder reappears as the central point of the “Large Glass.” The Large Glass is divided into two panes of glass: the Bride’s realm in the upper half and the Bachelors’s apparatus in the lower half. The chocolate grinder is placed at the lower part of the glass consisting of three drum-like structures, arranged around a circular platform. They are appropriately chocolate brown.

In a way “Large Glass” can be regarded as a shop window filled with commodities. It is not a picture, rather a big window on the continuously drifting life. [33] The glued and etched images on its surface represent the commodities behind the shop window. With the ever-changing passersby, the glass reconstructs a world of outside and inside.

Despite provoking a minor scandal, Duchamp’s early shop window works are not publicized. In April 1945, he designs his famous shop window for Breton’s book ‘Arcane 17′ at Brentano’s Book Store (also the publisher of Kiesler’s Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display) on Fifth Avenue. Duchamp installs a headless female mannequin reading a book and wearing a mini-apron with a water tap mounted on its leg. He calls this installation ‘Lazy Hardware’.  Another object in the shop window is the wine bottle from the surrealist ‘View Magazine’s’ cover. This window attracts a lot of notice and because of the protests of Women’s League, the installation has to be moved from Brentano’s Book Store to Gotham Book Mart, at the cross street. [34]

Beginning from 1920s many artists and architects are commissioned to dress windows for department stores and shops. László Moholy-Nagy in the 1930s, and Andy Warhol in the 1950s; the latter works as a window dresser and designs a vast number of windows. Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg design shop windows under the pseudonym Matson Jones for stores such as Tiffany’s from 1950s onwards. In 1980, Jeff Koons designs a window for the New Museum of Contemporary Art in New York.

Richard Sennett has described the rise of modern department stores and display windows as an indication of the emergence of “an experience of publicness more intense and less sociable.” [35] It is the place of visible speculation that seems to be near and far at the same time.

 

[1] Ulrich Lehmann: Tigersprung: fashion in modernity, Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2000, p. 203

[2] Walter Benjamin: Das Passagenwerk, in: Gesammelte Schriften Band V.1., Walter Benjamin, edited by Rolf Tiedemann, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1974-1989, p. 174-5

[3] Walter Benjamin: Gesammelte Schriften 5.2, Rolf Tiedemann and Hermann Schweppenhauser (ed.), Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1972, p. 1008

[4] Richard Sennett: Plate Glass, in: Raritan, Vol 6, No. 4, Spring 1987, p.1

[5] Richard Sennett: The Conscience of the Eye, London: Faber and Faber, 1991, p. 109

[6] Georg Hirth: Das deutsche Zimmer der Gotik and Renaissance, des Barock- Rokoko- and Zopfstils, Munich and Leipzig, 1886, p. 152

[7] Emile Zola: The Ladies Paradise. London: Vizetelly, 1886, p. 280

[8] Wolfgang Schivelbusch: Night Life, in: The Consumption Reader, D.B. Clarke, M.A.

Doel and K.M.L. Housinaux (Ed.), London: Routledge, 2003, p. 89

[9] „Also boten die Ladenschilder die einzige Möglichkeit, den Wohnort eines Gewerbetreibenden oder eines Händlers zu bezeichnen. Die Folge war, daß sich eine bunte Fülle der phantasievollsten Aufschriften entfaltete, die so recht die noch immer ins Romantische  hinüberspielende Wirtschaftsverfassung des Frühkapitalismus kennzeichnet. Es war einer jener folgenschweren Schritte aus der bunten Welt der Worte und Farben und Formen in eine graue Welt der Zahlen, als diese alten Firmenschilder eines nach dem andern verschwanden: gleichsam die Symbole einer sterbenden Zeit.“

Werner Sombart: Der moderne Kapitalismus, München und Leipzig: Verlag von Duncker & Humblot 1922 (original 1902), Band 2, Halbband 1, p. 402

[10] Wolfgang Schivelbusch: Night Life, in: The Consumption Reader, D.B. Clarke, M.A.

Doel and K.M.L. Housinaux (Ed.), London: Routledge, 2003, p. 89

[11] Werner Sombart: Der moderne Kapitalismus, München und Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot 1902,

Vol. 2, p. 463

[12] L. Frank Baum, window dresser and the author of the first Oz books, is the founder and first president of the National Association of Window Trimmers and in 1897 starts Show Window, the trade’s first journal.

[13] L. Frank Baum: The Art of Decorating Dry Goods Windows and Interiors. Chicago: Show Window Publishing Company, 1900, p. 146

[14] Skater Performs on Tiny Ice Rink in Store Window, Popular Science, Nov, 1939, p.129

[15] L. Frank Baum: The Art of Decorating Dry Goods Windows and Interiors. Chicago: Show Window Publishing Company, 1900, p. 147

[16] Salvador Dali: The Secret Life of Salvador Dali, New York: Dial Press, 1942, p. 372

[17] Salvador Dali: The Secret Life of Salvador Dali, New York: Dial Press, 1942, p. 373

[18] Dali’s Display, in: Time, Monday, Mar. 27, 1939

[19] Art Digest, April 1939 reprinted in: Daniel Abadie (Ed.), La vie publique de Salvador Dali, Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, 1980, p. 7

[20] “Modernité is a temporal function that expresses the sentimental reality of certain objects, whose novelty is not their main characteristic, but whose efficiency is due to the recent discovery of their expressive value. Or, if you will, in which one discovers a new use that surpasses the one that is known, so that the former becomes forgotten…

Look on the modernist objects and what links them to life – the street, ads, machines, mannequins, shop windows, etc., which have been transformed during the years we are concerned about.”
Louis Aragon: Introduction à 1930, in: La Révolution Surréaliste 5, No. 12, 12 December 1925, p. 58

[21] „My attention was suddenly attracted by a sort of humming noise which seemed to be coming from the direction of the cane shop, and I was astonished to see that its window was bathed in a greenish, almost submarine light, the source of which remained invisible. It was the same kind of phosphorescence that, I remember, emanated from the fish I watched, as a child, …; but still, I had to admit to myself that even though the canes might conceivably possess the illuminating properties of creatures of the deep, …. I recognised the sound: it was the same voice of the seashells that has never ceased to amaze poets and films-stars. The whole ocean in the Passage de l’Opéra. The canes floated gently like seaweed. I had still not recovered from my enchantment when I noticed that a human form was swimming among the various levels of the window display.”

Louis Aragon: Paris Peasant, Boston: Exact Change, 1994 (Original “Le Paysan de Paris” 1926), pp. 21-22

[22] “Warum erzählt eigentlich das Schaufenster nicht ein Theaterstück anstelle einer Auslage? Ein Bühnenstück mit Herrn Hut und Fräulein Handschuh in den Hauptrollen. Das Schaufenster als Peepshow-Bühne? Die Strasse sei unser Zuschauerraum mit ihrem sich immer aufs Neue veränderndem Publikum. Hat noch niemand Theaterstücke für Handelswaren geschrieben?“

Friedrich Kiesler: Some Notes on Show Windows, Typescript, Wien: Österreichische Friedrich und Lillian Kiesler Privatstiftung, undated, p. 3

Cited in: Eva Kraus: Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display. Gedanken zu Friedrich Kieslers Schaufensterkonzepten, in: Shopping. 100 Jahre Kunst und Konsum, Max Hollein and Christph Grunenberg (Ed.), Ostfildern-Ruit: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2002, p. 125

„Why doesn’t the window hold instead of a display–a play? A stage play–where Mr. Hat and Miss Glove are partners. The window a veritable peepshow stage. Let the street be your auditorium with its ever-changing audience. Has nobody tried to conceive plays for merchandise?“

Friedrich Kiesler: Some Notes on Show Windows, Typescript, Wien: Österreichische Friedrich und Lillian Kiesler Privatstiftung, undated, p. 3

Cited in: Eva Christina Kraus: Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display. Thoughts on Frederick Kiesler’s Show Windows, in: Shopping. A Century of Art and Consumer Culture, Max Hollein and Christph Grunenberg (Ed.), Ostfildern-Ruit: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2002, p. 125

[23] Frederich Kiesler: Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display, New York: Brentano’s Publishers, 1930, p. 66

[24] „In this window of Saks-Fifth Avenue, the rule of simplicity is realized in a high measure. One sees only a chair, over which a coat and a pair of gloves have been thrown, displayed against a vast background. The background is of a neutral uniform gray, the coat is black velvet with a white furcollar, the gloves are also white, the cushion of the chair red, the wood of the chair gray.“

Frederich Kiesler: Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display, New York: Brentano’s Publishers, 1930, p. 25

[25] Here is an opportunity for someone to invent a pushbutton system for the convenience of the passerby, one which would open and close windows at will which would select any individual piece of merchandise in which she designed to be interested and bring it closer for examination; which would turn some material around and stop at any desired view; which would throw a stronger light at a given spot light at a given spot, should that be wanted. Prices may appear in response to the wish, replies be given to questions and there may be some means, just as in an automat, of pushing money in and merchandise out. The direct contact between such a display stage and the passerby has been anticipated by the newest stage direction where contact between actor and audience is sought.

Frederich Kiesler: Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display, New York: Brentano’s Publishers, 1930, p. 110

[26] „ As a mechanization of sales-service for the exposition and discussion of merchandise. …  The screen acts as an auxiliary robot.“

Frederich Kiesler: Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display, New York: Brentano’s Publishers, 1930, p. 120

[27] Frederich Kiesler: Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display, New York: Brentano’s Publishers, 1930, p. 121

[28] Frederich Kiesler: Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display, New York: Brentano’s Publishers, 1930, p. 9

[29] Frederich Kiesler: Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display, New York: Brentano’s Publishers, 1930, p. 69

[30] Marcel Duchamp: Neuilly (1913) in: The Writings of Marcel Duchamp, Michel Sanouillet and Elmer Peterson (Ed.), New York: Da Capo Press, 1989, p. 74

[31] Thomas Girst: Those Objects of Obscure Desires. Marcel Duchamp and his Shop Windows, in: Shopping. A Century of Art and Consumer Culture, Max Hollein and Christph Grunenberg (Ed.), Ostfildern-Ruit: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2002, p. 143

[32] “The mechanical side influenced me then, or at least that was also the point of departure of a new technique. I couldn’t go into the haphazard drawing or the paintings, the splashing of the paint. I wanted to go back to a completely dry drawing, a dry conception of art, and the mechanical drawing for me was the best form of that dry form of art … I was striving towards accuracy and precision, no more handwork … I was beginning to appreciate the importance of chance … this was the real beginning of the “Large Glass””

James Johnson Sweeney: A Conversation with Marcel Duchamp, interview at Philadelphia Museum of Art, constituting the sound track of a 30-minute film made in 1955 by NBC

Cited in: Klaus Beekman and Antje von Graevenitz: Marcel Duchamp, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1989, p. 46

[33] Anne d’Harnoncourt and Walter Hopps: Etant Donnés. 1° la chute d’eau, 2° le gaz d’éclairage. Reflections on a New Work by Marcel Duchamp, in: Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. 64, No. 299 and 300, April – September 1969, Philadelphia, 1969, p.  31

[34] Nina Schleif: Schaufensterkunst, Köln: Böhlau Verlag, 2004, p. 204

[35] Richard Sennett: The Fall of Public Man, London: Faber and Faber, 1986 p. 141